Journal of Cryptology

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 313–339

Quark: A Lightweight Hash

Authors

  • Luca Henzen
    • UBS AG
  • Willi Meier
    • FHNW
  • María Naya-Plasencia
    • University of Versailles
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00145-012-9125-6

Cite this article as:
Aumasson, J., Henzen, L., Meier, W. et al. J Cryptol (2013) 26: 313. doi:10.1007/s00145-012-9125-6

Abstract

The need for lightweight (that is, compact, low-power, low-energy) cryptographic hash functions has been repeatedly expressed by professionals, notably to implement cryptographic protocols in RFID technology. At the time of writing, however, no algorithm exists that provides satisfactory security and performance. The ongoing SHA-3 Competition will not help, as it concerns general-purpose designs and focuses on software performance. This paper thus proposes a novel design philosophy for lightweight hash functions, based on the sponge construction in order to minimize memory requirements. Inspired by the stream cipher Grain and by the block cipher KATAN (amongst the lightest secure ciphers), we present the hash function family Quark, composed of three instances: u-Quark, d-Quark, and s-Quark. As a sponge construction, Quark can be used for message authentication, stream encryption, or authenticated encryption. Our hardware evaluation shows that Quark compares well to previous tentative lightweight hash functions. For example, our lightest instance u-Quark conjecturally provides at least 64-bit security against all attacks (collisions, multicollisions, distinguishers, etc.), fits in 1379 gate-equivalents, and consumes on average 2.44 μW at 100 kHz in 0.18 μm ASIC. For 112-bit security, we propose s-Quark, which can be implemented with 2296 gate-equivalents with a power consumption of 4.35 μW.

Key words

Hash functionsLightweight cryptographySponge functionsCryptanalysisIndifferentiability
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Copyright information

© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2012