Randomised trials of 6 % tetrastarch (hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or 0.42) for severe sepsis reporting mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis
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- Patel, A., Waheed, U. & Brett, S.J. Intensive Care Med (2013) 39: 811. doi:10.1007/s00134-013-2863-6
To assess the impact of 6 % tetrastarch [hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 and 130/0.42] in severe sepsis patients. The primary outcome measure was 90-day mortality.
A structured literature search was undertaken to identify prospective randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult patients with severe sepsis receiving 6 % tetrastarch (of potato or waxy maize origin) as part of fluid resuscitation in comparison with other non-HES fluids after randomisation in the critical care setting. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed.
Six RCTs were included (n = 3,033): three from 2012 (n = 2,913) had low risk of bias. Median tetrastarch exposure was 37.4 ml/kg (range 30–43 ml/kg). Ninety-day mortality was associated with tetrastarch exposure [relative risk (RR) 1.13; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.25; p = 0.02] compared with crystalloid. The number needed to harm (NNH) was 28.8 (95 % CI 14.6–942.5). Publication bias and statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 0 %) were not present. Tetrastarch exposure was also associated with renal replacement therapy (p = 0.01; NNH 15.7) and allogeneic transfusion support (p = 0.001; NNH 9.9). No difference between groups was observed for 28-day mortality, for comparison with colloid as control, or for waxy maize-derived tetrastarch, but power was lacking. Overall mortality was associated with tetrastarch exposure (RR 1.13; 95 % CI 1.02–1.25; p = 0.02).
In our analysis, 6 % tetrastarch as part of initial fluid resuscitation for severe sepsis was associated with harm and, as alternatives exist, in our view should be avoided.