, Volume 37, Issue 10, pp 1656-1663,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 30 Aug 2011

Ventilator-associated pneumonia in children after cardiac surgery in The Netherlands



We conducted a retrospective cohort study in an academic tertiary care center to characterize ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery in The Netherlands.


All patients following cardiac surgery and mechanically ventilated for ≥24 h were included. The primary outcome was development of VAP. Secondary outcomes were duration of mechanical ventilation and length of ICU stay.


A total of 125 patients were enrolled. Their mean age was 16.5 months. The rate of VAP was 17.1/1,000 mechanical ventilation days. Frequently found organisms were Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Patients with VAP had longer duration of ventilation and longer ICU stay. Risk factors associated with the development of VAP were a PRISM III score of ≥10 and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma.


The mean VAP rate in this population is higher than that reported in general pediatric ICU populations. Children with VAP had a prolonged need for mechanical ventilation and a longer ICU stay.