Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 292-299

First online:

Candidemia and candiduria in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units in France: incidence, molecular diversity, management and outcome

  • Marie-Elisabeth BougnouxAffiliated withService de Bactériologie, Virologie, Parasitologie et Hygiène, Hôpital Necker-Enfants MaladesLaboratoire de Parasitologie–Mycologie, Service de Microbiologie, Hôpital Necker Enfants MaladesAssistance Publique, Hôpitaux de ParisUnité Biologie et Pathogénicité Fongiques, INRA USC 2019, Institut PasteurFaculté de Médecine, Université René Descartes Email author 
  • , Guillaume KacAffiliated withAssistance Publique, Hôpitaux de ParisUnité d’Hygiène Hospitalière, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou
  • , Philippe AegerterAffiliated withAssistance Publique, Hôpitaux de ParisInformatique Médicale, Hôpital Ambroise-Paré
  • , Christophe d’EnfertAffiliated withUnité Biologie et Pathogénicité Fongiques, INRA USC 2019, Institut Pasteur
  • , Jean-Yves FagonAffiliated withAssistance Publique, Hôpitaux de ParisFaculté de Médecine, Université René DescartesService de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou
  • , CandiRea Study Group

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access



To determine the concomitant incidence, molecular diversity, management and outcome of nosocomial candidemia and candiduria in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in France.


A 1-year prospective observational study in 24 adult ICUs.


Two hundred and sixty-two patients with nosocomial candidemia and/or candiduria.

Measurements and results

Blood and urine samples were collected when signs of sepsis were present. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida strains was determined; in addition, all blood and 72% of urine C. albicans isolates were analyzed by using multi-locus sequence type (MLST). The mean incidences of candidemia and candiduria were 6.7 and 27.4/1000 admissions, respectively. Eight percent of candiduric patients developed candidemia with the same species. The mean interval between ICU admission and candidemia was 19.0 ± 2.9 days, and 17.2 ± 1.1 days for candiduria. C. albicans and C. glabrata were isolated in 54.2% and 17% of blood and 66.5% and 21.6% of urine Candida-positive cultures, respectively. Fluconazole was the most frequently prescribed agent. In all candidemic patients, the prescribed curative antifungal agent was active in vitro against the responsible identified strain. Crude ICU mortality was 61.8% for candidemic and 31.3% for candiduric patients. Seventy-five percent of the patients were infected with a unique C. albicans strain; cross-transmission between seven patients was suggested in one hospital.


Candidemia is late-onset ICU-acquired infection associated with high mortality. No difference in susceptibility and genetic background were found between blood and urine strains of Candida species.


Candidemia Candiduria Nosocomial infections Critically ill patients Molecular typing