Urinary biomarkers in septic acute kidney injury
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To appraise the literature on the value of urinary biomarkers in septic acute kidney injury (AKI).
Academic medical centre.
Patients and participants
Human studies of urinary biomarkers.
Measurements and results
Fourteen articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Most studies were small, single-centre, and included mixed medical/surgical adult populations. Few focused solely on septic AKI and all had notable limitations. Retrieved articles included data on low-molecular-weight proteins (β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, adenosine deaminase binding protein, retinol binding protein, cystatin C, renal tubular epithelial antigen-1), enzymes (N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase; lactate dehydrogenase, α/π-glutathione-S-transferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase), cytokines [platelet activating factor (PAF), interleukin-18 (IL-18)] and other biomarkers [kidney injury molecule-1, Na/H exchanger isoform-3 (NHE3)]. Increased PAF, IL-18, and NHE3 were detected early in septic AKI and preceded overt kidney failure. Several additional biomarkers were evident early in AKI; however, their diagnostic value in sepsis remains unknown. In one study, IL-18 excretion was higher in septic than in non-septic AKI. IL-18 also predicted deterioration in kidney function, with increased values preceding clinically significant kidney failure by 24–48 h. Detection of cystatin C, α1-microglobulin, and IL-18 predicted need for renal replacement therapy (RRT).
Few clinical studies of urinary biomarkers in AKI have included septic patients. However, there is promising evidence that selected biomarkers may aid in the early detection of AKI in sepsis and may have value for predicting subsequent deterioration in kidney function. Additional prospective studies are needed to accurately describe their diagnostic and prognostic value in septic AKI.
- Urinary biomarkers in septic acute kidney injury
Intensive Care Medicine
Volume 33, Issue 7 , pp 1285-1296
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
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- Acute kidney injury
- Acute renal failure
- Urinary biomarkers
- Renal replacement therapy
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Alberta Hospital, 3C1.16 Walter C. Mackenzie Centre, 8440-112 Street, T6G 2B7, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
- 2. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Austin Hospital, Studley Road, 3084, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia
- 3. Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, 161 Barry Street, 3053, South Carlton, VIC, Australia
- 4. Department of Medicine, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Australia