, Volume 31, Issue 10, pp 1327-1335
Date: 16 Aug 2005

The effects of anesthesia and muscle paralysis on the respiratory system

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Abstract

Background

Oxygenation is impaired in almost all subjects during anesthesia, and hypoxemia for shorter or longer periods is a common finding. Moreover, postoperative lung complications occur in 3–10% after elective abdominal surgery and more in emergency operations.

Discussion

Rapid collapse of alveoli on induction of anesthesia and more widespread closure of airways seem to explain the oxygenation impairment and may also contribute to postoperative pulmonary infection. Causative mechanisms to atelectasis and airway closure seem to be loss of respiratory muscle tone and gas resorption.

Conclusion

Avoiding high inspired oxygen fractions during both induction and maintenance of anesthesia prevents or reduces atelectasis, while intermittent “vital capacity” maneuvers recruit atelectatic lung regions.