Risk factors for late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in trauma patients receiving selective digestive decontamination
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- Leone, M., Delliaux, S., Bourgoin, A. et al. Intensive Care Med (2005) 31: 64. doi:10.1007/s00134-004-2514-z
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To determine the independent risk factors for late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in trauma patients receiving selective digestive decontamination (SDD).
A 4-year, prospective cohort study of trauma patients meeting the following criteria: injury severity score >15, and duration of mechanical ventilation >5 days. Predictors of late-onset VAP occurrence were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
All patients received SDD consisting of polymixin E, gentamicin, and amphotericin B applied in nostrils, mouth, and gut with a 3-day course of parenteral cefazolin. VAP was suspected on clinical and radiological signs, and confirmed by the presence of at least one microorganism at a concentration of at least 104 CFU/ml on the broncho-alveolar lavage.
Independent risk factors for late-onset VAP.
A late-onset VAP was diagnosed in 90 (56%) out of 159 patients. Predicting factors for late-onset VAP were: use of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant agents for intubation [3.4 (CI 1.08–10.73)], duration of intubation [1.06 (CI 1.01–1.17)], length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay [1.05 (CI 1.02–1.09)], and prior tracheal colonization [1.03 (CI 1.02–1.21)]. Exposure to prior antimicrobial treatment, except SDD, conferred protection [0.3 (0.12–0.74)].
This study confirms the role of duration of intubation, length of ICU stay, and prior tracheal colonization in the development of late-onset VAP. The results also highlight the importance of the initial management on the development of late-onset VAP. The type of neuromuscular blocking agents to intubate trauma patients should be evaluated in future studies.