ORIGINAL PAPER

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 42, Issue 7, pp 573-582

First online:

The mental health effects of multiple work and family demands

A prospective study of psychiatric sickness absence in the French GAZEL study
  • Maria MelchiorAffiliated withMRC Centre for Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s CollegeINSERM, U687Université Paris XI, IFR69 Email author 
  • , Lisa F. BerkmanAffiliated withDept. of Society, Human Development and Health Harvard School of Public Health
  • , Isabelle NiedhammerAffiliated withINSERM, U687Université Paris XI, IFR69
  • , Marie ZinsAffiliated withCETAF-RPPC, INSERM U687
  • , Marcel GoldbergAffiliated withINSERM, U687Université Paris XI, IFR69

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Abstract

Background

Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the cumulative effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men.

Methods

We studied the association between multiple work and family demands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal study conducted among members of the French GAZEL cohort study (8,869 men, 2,671 women) over a period of 9 years (1995–2003). Work stress and family demands were measured by questionnaire. Medically certified psychiatric sickness absence data were obtained directly from the employer. Rate ratios (RRs) of sickness absence were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, marital status, social support, stressful life events, alcohol consumption, body mass and depressive symptoms at baseline.

Results

Participants simultaneously exposed to high levels of work and family demands (≥2 work stress factors and ≥4 dependents) had significantly higher rates of sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders than participants with lower levels of demands (compared to participants exposed to 0–1 work stress factors and with 1–3 dependents, age-adjusted rate ratios were 2.37 (95% CI 1.02–5.52) in men and 6.36 (95% CI 3.38–11.94) in women. After adjusting for baseline socio-demographic, behavioral and health characteristics, these RRs were respectively reduced to 1.82 (95% CI 0.86–3.87) in men, 5.04 (95% CI 2.84–8.90) in women. The effect of multiple work and family demands was strongest for sickness absence due to depression: age-adjusted RRs among participants with the highest level of work and family demands were 4.70 (1.96–11.24) in men, 8.57 (4.26–17.22) in women; fully adjusted RRs: 3.55 (95% CI 1.62–7.77) in men, 6.58 (95%CI 3.46–12.50) in women.

Conclusions

Men and women simultaneously exposed to high levels of work stress and family demands are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems, particularly depression.

Keywords

work stress family demands sickness absence depression social disparities