Mineralium Deposita

, 44:463

Examining potential genetic links between Jurassic porphyry Cu–Au ± Mo and epithermal Au ± Ag mineralization in the Toodoggone district of North-Central British Columbia, Canada

  • Paul Duuring
  • Stephen M. Rowins
  • Bradley S. M. McKinley
  • Jenni M. Dickinson
  • Larry J. Diakow
  • Young-Seog Kim
  • Robert A. Creaser
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00126-008-0228-9

Cite this article as:
Duuring, P., Rowins, S.M., McKinley, B.S.M. et al. Miner Deposita (2009) 44: 463. doi:10.1007/s00126-008-0228-9

Abstract

The Toodoggone district comprises Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group Toodoggone Formation volcanic and sedimentary rocks, which unconformably overlie submarine island-arc volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Lower Permian Asitka Group and Middle Triassic Takla Group, some of which are intruded by Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic plutons and dikes of the Black Lake suite. Although plutonism occurred episodically from ca. 218 to 191 Ma, the largest porphyry Cu–Au ± Mo systems formed from ca. 202 to 197 Ma, with minor mineralization occurring from ca. 197 to 194 Ma. Porphyry-style mineralization is hosted by small-volume (<1 km3), single-phase, porphyritic igneous stocks or dikes that have high-K calc-alkaline compositions and are comparable with volcanic-arc granites. The Fin porphyry Cu–Au–Mo deposit is anomalous in that it is 16 m.y. older than any other porphyry Cu–Au ± Mo occurrence in the district and has lower REEs. All porphyry systems are spatially restricted to exposed Asitka and Takla Group basement rocks, and rarely, the lowest member of the Hazelton Group (i.e., the ca. 201 Ma Duncan Member). The basement rocks to intrusions are best exposed in the southern half of the district, where high rates of erosion and uplift have resulted in their preferential exposure. In contrast, low- and high-sulfidation epithermal systems are more numerous in the northern half of the district, where the overlying Hazelton Group rocks dominate exposures. Cogenetic porphyry systems might also exist in the northern areas; however, if they are present, they are likely to be buried deeply beneath Hazelton Group rocks. High-sulfidation epithermal systems formed at ca. 201 to 182 Ma, whereas low-sulfidation systems were active at ca. 192 to 162 Ma. Amongst the studied epithermal systems, the Baker low-sulfidation epithermal deposit displays the strongest demonstrable genetic link with magmatic fluids; fluid inclusion studies demonstrate that its ore fluids were hot (>468°C), saline, and deposited metals at deep crustal depths (>2 km). Sulfur, C, O, and Pb isotope data confirm the involvement of a magmatic fluid, but also suggest that the ore fluid interacted with Asitka and Takla Group country rocks prior to metal deposition. In contrast, in the Shasta, Lawyers, and Griz-Sickle low-sulfidation epithermal systems, there is no clear association with magmatic fluids. Instead, their fluid inclusion data indicate the involvement of low-temperature (175 to 335°C), low-salinity (1 to 11 equiv. wt.% NaCl) fluids that deposited metals at shallow depths (<850 m). Their isotope (i.e., O, H, Pb) data suggest interaction between meteoric and/or metamorphic ore fluids with basement country rocks.

Keywords

Porphyry Epithermal Toodoggone Stikine Kemess South Kemess North 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Duuring
    • 1
    • 3
  • Stephen M. Rowins
    • 1
  • Bradley S. M. McKinley
    • 1
  • Jenni M. Dickinson
    • 1
  • Larry J. Diakow
    • 2
  • Young-Seog Kim
    • 3
  • Robert A. Creaser
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Ocean SciencesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.British Columbia Geological Survey, Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum ResourcesVictoriaCanada
  3. 3.Department of Environmental GeosciencesPukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada