, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 519-526

The impact of a family history of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus on the risk of diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis. There is substantial evidence for a role of genetic factors in the development of diabetic nephropathy. In Pima Indians, a link between susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has been proposed. In this study, our aim was to examine the association between a family history of Type II diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Methods. In a cross-sectional case-control study, we assessed the prevalence of Type II diabetes in the parents of 137 Type I diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (albuminuria > 300 μg/min in two of three overnight urine collections) compared with the parents of 54 Type I diabetic patients without nephropathy (albuminuria < 20 μg/min). Results. Thirty-four (25 %) of the patients with nephropathy compared with five (9 %) of the patients without nephropathy had a parental history of Type II diabetes (p = 0.019). A parental history of Type II diabetes was associated with a three-fold risk [odds ratio 2.95 (95 % confidence interval: 1.03 to 8.40), p = 0.043] of diabetic nephropathy after adjustment for sex, glycaemic control and family history of hypertension. Furthermore, there was an excess of risk factors for development of Type II diabetes (higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations, higher prevalence of hypertension, higher waist-hip ratio and a tendency towards more glucose intolerance) among previously non-diabetic parents of patients with nephropathy. Conclusion/interpretation. Genetic or environmental factors or both related to familial Type II diabetes increase susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in patients with Type I diabetes. [Diabetologia (1999) 42: 519–526]

Received: 30 September 1998 and in final revised form: 28 December 1998