Do men develop type 2 diabetes at lower body mass indices than women?
To describe the associations between age, sex and BMI at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and test the hypothesis that men are diagnosed with diabetes at lower average BMI than women of similar age.
Linear regression was used to estimate and compare the relationship between age and BMI at diagnosis among 51,920 men and 43,137 women included in a population-based diabetes register in Scotland for whom an index BMI measurement was taken within 1 year of diabetes diagnosis. We also examined HbA1c values by sex within the same timescale.
Mean BMI closest to date of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 31.83 kg/m2 (SD 5.13) in men and 33.69 kg/m2 (SD 6.43) in women. The inverse relationship between age and BMI at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus was significantly steeper in women than in men (slope estimate in men −0.12 kg/m2 per year [95% CI −0.13, −0.12] women −0.18 kg/m2 per year [95% CI −0.18, −0.17], p < 0.0001 for formal test of interaction). Mean BMI difference was most marked at younger ages and narrowed with advancing age. However, HbA1c levels within 1 year of diagnoses were broadly similar in men and women.
Men are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at lower BMI than women across the age range. This observation may help explain why type 2 diabetes is more common among middle-aged men in populations of European extraction. Whether the same pattern is also observed in other ethnic groups requires confirmation.
- Hillier TA, Pedula KL (2001) Characteristics of an adult population with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: the relation of obesity and age of onset. Diabetes Care 24:1522–1527 CrossRef
- Lipscombe LL, Hux JE (2007) Trends in diabetes prevalence, incidence, and mortality in Ontario, Canada 1995–2005: a population-based study. Lancet 369:750–756 CrossRef
- Choi YJ, Kim HC, Kim HM, Park SW, Kim J, Kim DJ (2009) Prevalence and management of diabetes in Korean adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1998–2005. Diabetes Care 32:2016–2020 CrossRef
- Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR et al (2010) Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet 375:2215–2222, Erratum in: Lancet. 2010;376:958. Hillage, H L [corrected to Hillege, H L] CrossRef
- Geer EB, Shen W (2009) Gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Gend Med 6(Suppl 1):60–75 CrossRef
- Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Di Angelantonio E, Sarwar N, Perry P et al (2009) Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease. JAMA 302:1993–2000 CrossRef
- Lovejoy JC, Sainsbury A, Stock Conference 2008 Working Group (2008) Sex differences in obesity and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Obes Rev 2009(10):154–167
- Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group et al (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346:393–403 CrossRef
- Wannamethee SG, Papacosta O, Whincup PH et al (2010) Assessing prediction of diabetes in older adults using different adiposity measures: a 7 year prospective study in 6,923 older men and women. Diabetologia 53:890–898 CrossRef
- Wannamethee SG, Papacosta O, Lawlor DA et al (2011) Do women exhibit greater differences in established and novel risk factors between diabetes and non-diabetes than do men? The British Regional Heart Study and British Women’s Heart Health Study. Diabetologia doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2284-4
- Do men develop type 2 diabetes at lower body mass indices than women?
Volume 54, Issue 12 , pp 3003-3006
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Body mass index
- Insulin resistance
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA,, Scotland, UK
- 2. Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
- 3. Biomedical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
- 4. Metabolic Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
- 5. School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK