, Volume 54, Issue 7, pp 1720-1725,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 05 Apr 2011

Pancreatic alpha cell mass in European subjects with type 2 diabetes

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Type 2 diabetes is a bi-hormonal disease characterised by relative hypoinsulinaemia and hyperglucagonaemia with elevated blood glucose levels. Besides pancreatic beta cell defects, a low number of beta cells (low beta cell mass) may contribute to the insufficient secretion of insulin. In this study our aim was to determine whether the alpha cell mass is also altered.

Methods

Using a point counting method, we measured the ratio of alpha to beta cell areas in pancreas samples obtained at autopsy from 50 type 2 diabetic subjects, whose beta cell mass had previously been found to be 36% lower than that of 52 non-diabetic subjects.

Results

The topography of alpha and beta cells was similar in both groups: many alpha cells were localised in the centre of the islets and the ratio of alpha/beta cell areas increased with islet size. The average ratio was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic subjects (0.72) than in non-diabetic subjects (0.42), with, however, a large overlap between the two groups. In contrast, the alpha cell mass was virtually identical in type 2 diabetic subjects (366 mg) and non-diabetic subjects (342 mg), and was not influenced by sex, BMI or type of diabetes treatment.

Conclusions

The higher proportion of alpha to beta cells in the islets of some type 2 diabetic subjects is due to a decrease in beta cell number rather than an increase in alpha cell number. This imbalance may contribute to alterations in the normal inhibitory influence exerted by beta cells on alpha cells, and lead to the relative hyperglucagonaemia observed in type 2 diabetes.