, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 536-540
Date: 27 Nov 2009

Thiazolidinediones increase the wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT) inhibitor Dickkopf-1 in adipocytes: a link with osteogenesis

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is a secreted inhibitor of canonical wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT) signalling; the key pathway for cell fate and development. Inhibition of WNT signalling by DKK1 in precursor cells promotes adipogenesis and inhibits osteogenesis. Previous studies have shown that treatment of type 2 diabetic patients with thiazolidinediones (TZDs) reduces bone density and increases risk of bone fractures, while body fat is increased.

Methods

We examined the effect of TZDs on secretion and DKK1 levels in pre-adipocytes and mature adipose cells and also measured circulating DKK1 levels in 11 patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with the TZD rosiglitazone for 90 days.

Results

TZDs added in vitro rapidly increased DKK1 protein levels and secretion in both fully differentiated adipose cells and pre-adipocytes undergoing differentiation. In parallel, β-catenin levels, a marker of canonical WNT signalling, were reduced. Serum levels of DKK1 were also increased in several of the patients with type 2 diabetes after treatment with rosiglitazone for 90 days.

Conclusions/interpretation

These results provide a novel mechanism whereby peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation can terminate WNT signalling and promote adipogenesis. Furthermore, they provide an explanation for why TZD treatment can lead to reduced bone formation and increased risk of fractures, since inhibited WNT signalling in progenitor cells promotes adipogenesis while osteogenesis is reduced.