, Volume 49, Issue 9, pp 2162-2173
Date: 25 Jul 2006

Long-term treatment with interleukin-1β induces insulin resistance in murine and human adipocytes

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Adipose tissue inflammation has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and is probably linked to high local levels of cytokines. IL1B, a proinflammatory cytokine, may participate in this alteration.

Materials and methods

We evaluated the chronic effect (1–10 days) of IL1B (0.1–20 ng/ml) on insulin signalling in differentiating 3T3-F442A and differentiated 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and in human adipocytes. We also assessed expression of the gene encoding IL1B in adipose tissue of wild-type and insulin-resistant mice (diet-induced and genetically obese ob/ob mice).

Results

IL1B inhibited insulin-induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit, insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt/protein kinase B and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 in murine and human adipocytes. Accordingly, IL1B suppressed insulin-induced glucose transport and lipogenesis. Long-term treatment of adipose cells with IL1B decreased cellular lipid content. This could result from enhanced lipolysis and/or decreased expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase). Down-regulation of peroxisome proliferating-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α in response to IL1B may have contributed to the altered phenotype of IL1B-treated adipocytes. Moreover, IL1B altered adipocyte differentiation status in long-term cultures. IL1B also decreased the production of adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a positive role in insulin sensitivity. Expression of the gene encoding IL1B was increased in epididymal adipose tissue of obese insulin-resistant mice.

Conclusions/interpretation

IL1B is upregulated in adipose tissue of obese and insulin-resistant mouse models and may play an important role in the development of insulin resistance in murine and human adipose cells.