, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 1066-1074
Date: 30 Apr 2005

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Angiotensin-II-induced oxidative stress elicits hypoadiponectinaemia in rats

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are associated conditions that share oxidative stress and vascular inflammation as common features. Adiponectin is an abundant plasma adipokine that plays a physiological role in modulating lipid metabolism and exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesised that adiponectin levels decrease in response to oxidative stress and that this may promote the development of hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance.

Methods

Rats were infused with angiotensin II (AngII) or its vehicle, either alone or in combination with tempo1 (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidinoxyl), a membrane-permeable metal-independent superoxide dismutase mimetic, or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), one of the most potent naturally occurring reducing agents and an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase activity. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, body weight and serum levels of adiponectin were measured on day 7 of treatment, and then the animals were killed. Vessel tone and superoxide production were measured ex vivo in thoracic vascular rings. The expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was assessed by Northern blotting, and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to H2O2 by real-time PCR. The expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit mRNAs in the rats was assessed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR.

Results

Hypertension and endothelial dysfunction were induced in rats by infusion of AngII and reversed by administration of tempol. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin and adipose tissue levels of adiponectin mRNA were decreased in AngII-infused rats, and this effect was prevented by cotreatment with tempol or BH4. The production of superoxide anions (O2 ) was significantly increased in the aortae of AngII-treated rats, and this increase was prevented by the administration of tempol or BH4. Levels of mRNAs that encode NAD(P)H oxidase components, including p22phox, gp91phox, p47phox and Rac1, were similarly increased in adipose tissue, aortae and hearts of AngII-infused rats. Cotreatment of rats with tempol or BH4 reversed AngII-induced increases in NAD(P)H oxidase subunit mRNAs. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, also exhibited diminished adiponectin mRNA levels when exposed to low concentrations of H2O2.

Conclusions/interpretation

Our results demonstrate that AngII-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are accompanied by a decrease in adiponectin gene expression. Since antioxidants were observed to prevent the actions of AngII, and H2O2 on its own suppressed adiponectin expression, we conclude that adiponectin gene expression is negatively modulated by oxidative stress. Plasma adiponectin levels may provide a useful indicator of oxidative stress in vivo, and suppressed levels may contribute to the proinflammatory and metabolic derangements associated with type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and the metabolic syndrome.

This article has been retracted by the Editor-in-Chief of Diabetologia following the discovery of redundant publication.
An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-011-2159-8.