, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 1008-1016
Date: 14 Apr 2005

Angiotensin-I converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and its association with diabetic nephropathy: a meta-analysis of studies reported between 1994 and 2004 and comprising 14,727 subjects

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

The ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism has been examined for association with diabetic nephropathy over the past decade with conflicting results. To clarify this situation, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis encompassing all relevant studies that were published between 1994 and 2004 and investigated this potential genetic association.

Methods

A total of 14,727 subjects from 47 studies was included in this meta-analysis. Cases (n=8,663) were type 1 or 2 diabetic subjects with incipient (microalbuminuria) or advanced diabetic nephropathy (proteinuria, chronic renal failure, end-stage renal disease). Control subjects (n=6,064) were predominantly normoalbuminuric.

Results

No obvious publication bias was detected. Using a minimal-case definition based on incipient diabetic nephropathy, subjects with the II genotype had a 22% lower risk of diabetic nephropathy than carriers of the D allele (pooled odds ratio [OR]=0.78, 95% CI=0.69–0.88). While there was a reduced risk of diabetic nephropathy associated with the II genotype among Caucasians with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the association was most marked among type 2 diabetic Asians (Chinese, Japanese, Koreans) (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0. 51–0.83). This OR is significantly different from the OR of 0.90 (95% CI= 0.78–1.04) that was obtained for type 2 diabetic Caucasians (p=0.019). Using a stricter case definition based on advanced diabetic nephropathy, a comparable risk reduction of 24–32% was observed among the three subgroups, although statistical significance was reached only among Asians.

Conclusions/interpretation

The results of our meta-analysis support a genetic association of the ACE Ins/Del polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy. These findings may have implications for the management of diabetic nephropathy using ACE inhibitors especially among type 2 diabetic Asians.