High titres of IgA antibodies to enterovirus in fulminant type-1 diabetes
We have recently proposed that fulminant type-1 diabetes is a novel subtype of type-1 diabetes with abrupt onset of insulin-deficient hyperglycaemia without islet-related autoantibodies. The pathogenesis is still unknown, but flu-like symptoms are frequently observed before the onset of disease of this subtype. Enterovirus infection is a candidate environmental factor causing type-1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether enterovirus infection contributes to the development of fulminant type-1 diabetes.
We investigated 19 patients with recent-onset fulminant type-1 diabetes, 18 patients with recent-onset typical type-1A diabetes, and 19 healthy controls. IgM, IgG, and IgA subclasses of antibodies to enterovirus were determined by ELISA.
IgA antibody titres to enterovirus were significantly higher in fulminant type-1 diabetes than in typical type-1A diabetes (p=0.033) and controls (p=0.0003). IgM antibodies to enterovirus were not detected in any subject. IgG titres were lower in autoimmune diabetes than fulminant type and controls (p=0.014 and 0.019, respectively).
High titres of enterovirus IgA antibodies in serum suggest recurrent enterovirus infection in fulminant type-1 diabetic patients, indicating higher susceptibility to enteroviral infections among them. Such infections might have pathogenetic importance in the triggering of fulminant type-1 diabetes.
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- High titres of IgA antibodies to enterovirus in fulminant type-1 diabetes
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- 1. First Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki, 569-8686, Japan
- 2. Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
- 3. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shigenobu, Japan
- 4. Department of Clinical Virology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden