Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), a new marker system based on a simple PCR reaction: its application to mapping and gene tagging in Brassica
We developed a simple marker technique called sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) aimed for the amplification of open reading frames (ORFs). It is based on two-primer amplification. The primers are 17 or 18 nucleotides long and consist of the following elements. Core sequences, which are 13 to 14 bases long, where the first 10 or 11 bases starting at the 5′ end, are sequences of no specific constitution (”filler” sequences), followed by the sequence CCGG in the forward primer and AATT in the reverse primer. The core is followed by three selective nucleotides at the 3′ end. The filler sequences of the forward and reverse primers must be different from each other and can be 10 or 11 bases long. For the first five cycles the annealing temperature is set at 35°C. The following 35 cycles are run at 50°C. The amplified DNA fragments are separated by denaturing acrylamide gels and detected by autoradiography. We tested the marker technique in a series of recombinant inbred and doubled-haploid lines of Brassica oleracea L. After sequencing, approximately 45% of the gel-isolated bands matched known genes in the Genbank database. Twenty percent of the SRAP markers were co-dominant, which was demonstrated by sequencing. Construction of a linkage map revealed an even distribution of the SRAP markers in nine major linkage groups, not differing in this regard to AFLP markers. We successfully tagged the glucosinolate desaturation gene BoGLS-ALK with these markers. SRAPs were also easily amplified in other crops such as potato, rice, lettuce, Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), garlic, apple, citrus, and celery. We also amplified cDNA isolated from different tissues of Chinese cabbage, allowing the fingerprinting of these sequences.