Deciphering the genetics of flowering time by an association study on candidate genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

  • Michel Rousset
  • Isabelle Bonnin
  • Carine Remoué
  • Matthieu Falque
  • Bénédicte Rhoné
  • Jean-Baptiste Veyrieras
  • Delphine Madur
  • Alain Murigneux
  • François Balfourier
  • Jacques Le Gouis
  • Sylvain Santoni
  • Isabelle Goldringer
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00122-011-1636-2

Cite this article as:
Rousset, M., Bonnin, I., Remoué, C. et al. Theor Appl Genet (2011) 123: 907. doi:10.1007/s00122-011-1636-2

Abstract

Earliness is very important for the adaptation of wheat to environmental conditions and the achievement of high grain yield. A detailed knowledge of key genetic components of the life cycle would enable an easier control by the breeders. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of candidate genes on flowering time. Using a collection of hexaploid wheat composed of 235 lines from diverse geographical origins, we conducted an association study for six candidate genes for flowering time and its components (vernalization sensitivity and earliness per se). The effect on the variation of earliness components of polymorphisms within the copies of each gene was tested in ANOVA models accounting for the underlying genetic structure. The collection was structured in five groups that minimized the residual covariance. Vernalization requirement and lateness tend to increase according to the mean latitude of each group. Heading date for an autumnal sowing was mainly determined by the earliness per se. Except for the Constans (CO) gene orthologous of the barley HvCO3, all gene polymorphisms had a significant impact on earliness components. The three traits used to quantify vernalization requirement were primarily associated with polymorphisms at Vrn-1 and then at Vrn-3 and Luminidependens (LD) genes. We found a good correspondence between spring/winter types and genotypes at the three homeologous copies of Vrn-1. Earliness per se was mainly explained by polymorphisms at Vrn-3 and to a lesser extent at Vrn-1, Hd-1 and Gigantea (GI) genes. Vernalization requirement and earliness as a function of geographical origin, as well as the possible role of the breeding practices in the geographical distribution of the alleles and the hypothetical adaptive value of the candidate genes, are discussed.

Supplementary material

122_2011_1636_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 1373 kb)
122_2011_1636_MOESM2_ESM.ppt (2.1 mb)
Figure supplementary S1: Bread wheat core collection 235 structure (5 clusters) from genotyping of 82 neutral SSRs (PPT 2159 kb)
122_2011_1636_MOESM3_ESM.ppt (834 kb)
Figure supplementary S2: Heading date in the field and earliness per se. Correlation between Hdfield and HdV8 (PPT 834 kb)
122_2011_1636_MOESM4_ESM.doc (49 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOC 49 kb)
122_2011_1636_MOESM5_ESM.ppt (85 kb)
Figure supplementary S3: Projection of accessions on two first axis of factorial analysis based on 82 markers; 1 = central Asian cluster; 2 = northwest European cluster; 3 = South American + African cluster; 4 = Mediterranean cluster;5 = southeast European + North American cluster (PPT 85 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Rousset
    • 1
  • Isabelle Bonnin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carine Remoué
    • 1
  • Matthieu Falque
    • 1
  • Bénédicte Rhoné
    • 1
  • Jean-Baptiste Veyrieras
    • 1
  • Delphine Madur
    • 1
  • Alain Murigneux
    • 5
    • 6
  • François Balfourier
    • 3
  • Jacques Le Gouis
    • 3
  • Sylvain Santoni
    • 4
  • Isabelle Goldringer
    • 1
  1. 1.UMR de Génétique VégétaleINRA/CNRS/AgroParisTech/Univ. Paris XI, Ferme du MoulonGif sur YvetteFrance
  2. 2.Fondation pour la Recherche sur la Biodiversité (FRB) 195 rue Saint JacquesParisFrance
  3. 3.UMR Génétique, Diversité et Ecophysiologie des Céréales, INRA/UBPClermont-FerrandFrance
  4. 4.UMR Diversité et Génomes des Plantes Cultivées, INRA Domaine de MelgueilMauguioFrance
  5. 5.Clermont Ferrand Cedex 2France
  6. 6.ChappesFrance

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