, Volume 99, Issue 6, pp 505–509

Sequential assessment of prey through the use of multiple sensory cues by an eavesdropping bat


    • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
  • Tanja Schnelle
    • Institute of Experimental EcologyUniversity of Ulm
  • Elisabeth K. V. Kalko
    • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    • Institute of Experimental EcologyUniversity of Ulm
  • Thomas Bunge
    • Institute of Experimental EcologyUniversity of Ulm
  • Ximena E. Bernal
    • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    • Biological SciencesTexas Tech University
Short Communication

DOI: 10.1007/s00114-012-0920-6

Cite this article as:
Page, R.A., Schnelle, T., Kalko, E.K.V. et al. Naturwissenschaften (2012) 99: 505. doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0920-6


Predators are often confronted with a broad diversity of potential prey. They rely on cues associated with prey quality and palatability to optimize their hunting success and to avoid consuming toxic prey. Here, we investigate a predator’s ability to assess prey cues during capture, handling, and consumption when confronted with conflicting information about prey quality. We used advertisement calls of a preferred prey item (the túngara frog) to attract fringe-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosus, then offered palatable, poisonous, and chemically manipulated anurans as prey. Advertisement calls elicited an attack response, but as bats approached, they used additional sensory cues in a sequential manner to update their information about prey size and palatability. While both palatable and poisonous small anurans were readily captured, large poisonous toads were approached but not contacted suggesting the use of echolocation for assessment of prey size at close range. Once prey was captured, bats used chemical cues to make final, post-capture decisions about whether to consume the prey. Bats dropped small, poisonous toads as well as palatable frogs coated in toad toxins either immediately or shortly after capture. Our study suggests that echolocation and chemical cues obtained at close range supplement information obtained from acoustic cues at long range. Updating information about prey quality minimizes the occurrence of costly errors and may be advantageous in tracking temporal and spatial fluctuations of prey and exploiting novel food sources. These findings emphasize the sequential, complex nature of prey assessment that may allow exploratory and flexible hunting behaviors.


Multimodal cuesForaging strategiesPrey palatabilityPrey sizePredator flexibilityTrachops cirrhosus

Supplementary material

114_2012_920_MOESM1_ESM.docx (85 kb)
Fig. 1Tubercles on the chin and lips of T. cirrhosus (photo by Marcos Guerra) (DOCX 84 kb)
View video
Video 1

High-speed video sequence of a bat approaching, assessing, and rejecting a túngara frog coated in toad toxins (AVI 934 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012