, Volume 97, Issue 2, pp 153–160

Africanized honeybees are slower learners than their European counterparts

  • Margaret J. Couvillon
  • Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman
  • Wulfila Gronenberg

DOI: 10.1007/s00114-009-0621-y

Cite this article as:
Couvillon, M.J., DeGrandi-Hoffman, G. & Gronenberg, W. Naturwissenschaften (2010) 97: 153. doi:10.1007/s00114-009-0621-y


Does cognitive ability always correlate with a positive fitness consequence? Previous research in both vertebrates and invertebrates provides mixed results. Here, we compare the learning and memory abilities of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata hybrid) and European honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica). The range of the Africanized honeybee continues to expand, superseding the European honeybee, which led us to hypothesize that they might possess greater cognitive capabilities as revealed by a classical conditioning assay. Surprisingly, we found that fewer Africanized honeybees learn to associate an odor with a reward. Additionally, fewer Africanized honeybees remembered the association a day later. While Africanized honeybees are replacing European honeybees, our results show that they do so despite displaying a relatively poorer performance on an associative learning paradigm.


Apis melliferaAfricanized honeybeesAssociative learningProboscis extension response

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret J. Couvillon
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman
    • 3
  • Wulfila Gronenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Arizona Research Laboratories, Division of NeurobiologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Carl Hayden Bee Research CenterUSDA-ARSTucsonUSA