Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 89, Issue 4, pp 343–361

Emerging therapeutic approaches in the management of retinal angiogenesis and edema


DOI: 10.1007/s00109-010-0709-z

Cite this article as:
Truong, A., Wong, T.Y. & Khachigian, L.M. J Mol Med (2011) 89: 343. doi:10.1007/s00109-010-0709-z


Conditions resulting in retinal angiogenesis and edema (exudative age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and retinopathy of prematurity) are major causes of visual impairment, with significant impact on quality of life. There has been increasing clinical usage of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents to stop retinal angiogenesis and resolve intraretinal fluid arising from these conditions. However, anti-VEGFs have not been completely successful in curing these conditions, and a range of emerging treatments aimed at supplementing or competing with anti-VEGF agents are being developed. We will discuss the proposed merits these emerging agents bring to the treatment arsenal and how they compare with anti-VEGFs with regards to therapeutic activity, potency, specificity and safety. This review will also highlight recent pre-clinical research findings and suggest where future research might be directed.


Retinal angiogenesis Retinal edema Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) Diabetic retinopathy (DR) Neuronal degeneration Anti-VEGF 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • An Truong
    • 1
  • Tien Y. Wong
    • 2
    • 3
  • Levon M. Khachigian
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Vascular ResearchUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear HospitalUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Singapore Eye Research InstituteNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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