, Volume 87, Issue 6, pp 595-612

Harnessing innate and adaptive immunity for adoptive cell therapy of renal cell carcinoma

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The development of immunotherapies for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been the subject of research for several decades. In addition to cytokine therapy, the benefit of various adoptive cell therapies has again come into focus in the past several years. Nevertheless, success in fighting this immunogenic tumor is still disappointing. RCC can attract a multitude of different effector cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, including natural killer (NK) cells, γδ T cells, NK-like T cells, peptide-specific T cells, dendritic cells (DC), and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Based on intensive research on the biology and function of different immune cells, we now understand that individual cell types do not act in isolation but function within a complex network of intercellular interactions. These interactions play a pivotal role in the efficient activation and function of effector cells, which is a prerequisite for successful tumor elimination. This review provides a current overview of the diversity of effector cells having the capacity to recognize RCC. Aspects of the functions and anti-tumor properties that make them attractive candidates for adoptive cell therapies, as well as experience in clinical application are discussed. Improved knowledge of the biology of this immune network may help us to effectively harness various effector cells, placing us in a better position to develop new therapeutic strategies to successfully fight RCC.