Local administration of WIN 55,212-2 reduces chronic granuloma-associated angiogenesis in rat by inhibiting NF-κB activation
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- De Filippis, D., Russo, A., De Stefano, D. et al. J Mol Med (2007) 85: 635. doi:10.1007/s00109-007-0188-z
Chronic inflammation is often associated with granuloma formation that is a hallmark of many human diseases. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays a central role in this process by regulating the expression of several pro-inflammatory genes. Cannabinoids (CBs) from Cannabis sativa L. exert a large number of biological effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the role of CBs on granuloma formation induced by λ-carrageenin-soaked sponge implant in rat. Our results show that local administration of WIN 55,212-2, a CB1/CB2 agonist, given daily or at time of implantation significantly decreased weight and neo-angiogenesis in granuloma tissue and inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/DNA binding that was associated with a reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. Also, arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 selective agonist, and JWH-015, a CB2 selective agonist, exhibited the same effects that were reversed by SR141716-A and SR144528, respectively, CB1 and CB2 selective antagonists. These results indicate that CBs given locally may represent a potential therapeutic tool in controlling chronic inflammation avoiding psychotropic effects.