, Volume 85, Issue 7, pp 763-770

3-Hydroxyglutaric acid is transported via the sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter NaDC3

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Abstract

Patients with glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency accumulate glutaric acid (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3OH-GA) in their blood and urine. To identify the transporter mediating the translocation of 3OH-GA through membranes, kidney tissue of Gcdh−/− mice have been investigated because of its central role in urinary excretion of this metabolite. Using microarray analyses of kidney-expressed genes in Gcdh−/− mice, several differentially expressed genes encoding transporter proteins were identified. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the upregulation of the sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC3) and the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). Expression analysis of NaDC3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes by the two-electrode-voltage-clamp technique demonstrated the sodium-dependent translocation of 3OH-GA with a K M value of 0.95 mM. Furthermore, tracer flux measurements in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing OCT2 showed that 3OH-GA inhibited significantly the uptake of methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, whereas 3OH-GA is not transported by OCT2. The data demonstrate for the first time the membrane translocation of 3OH-GA mediated by NaDC3 and the cis-inhibitory effect on OCT2-mediated transport of cations.