Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 85, Issue 2, pp 139–148

Hypoxia-induced genetic instability—a calculated mechanism underlying tumor progression

  • L. Eric Huang
  • Ranjit S. Bindra
  • Peter M. Glazer
  • Adrian L. Harris

DOI: 10.1007/s00109-006-0133-6

Cite this article as:
Huang, L.E., Bindra, R.S., Glazer, P.M. et al. J Mol Med (2007) 85: 139. doi:10.1007/s00109-006-0133-6


The cause of human cancers is imputed to the genetic alterations at nucleotide and chromosomal levels of ill-fated cells. It has long been recognized that genetic instability—the hallmark of human cancers—is responsible for the cellular changes that confer progressive transformation on cancerous cells. How cancer cells acquire genetic instability, however, is unclear. We propose that tumor development is a result of expansion and progression—two complementary aspects that collaborate with the tumor microenvironment—hypoxia in particular, on genetic alterations through the induction of genetic instability. In this article, we review the recent literature regarding how hypoxia functionally impairs various DNA repair pathways resulting in genetic instability and discuss the biomedical implications in cancer biology and treatment.


DNA repairGenetic instabilityHIFHypoxiaTumor microenvironmentTumor progression



double-strand break


hypoxia-inducible factor


homologous recombination


hypoxia-responsive element


mismatch repair


nucleotide excision repair


nonhomologous end-joining

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Eric Huang
    • 1
  • Ranjit S. Bindra
    • 2
  • Peter M. Glazer
    • 2
  • Adrian L. Harris
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Therapeutic RadiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Cancer Research UK Growth Factor Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular MedicineJohn Radcliffe HospitalOxfordUK