Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 84, Issue 12, pp 997-1003

First online:

Thioredoxin in the cardiovascular system

  • Cameron J. WorldAffiliated withCardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester
  • , Hideyuki YamawakiAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology, Research Institute, National Cardiovascular Center
  • , Bradford C. BerkAffiliated withCardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Email author 

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The thioredoxin (TRX) system (TRX, TRX reductase, and NADPH) is a ubiquitous thiol oxidoreductase system that regulates cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) status. The impairment of cell redox state alters multiple cell pathways, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. In this manuscript, we review the essential roles that TRX plays by limiting oxidative stress directly via antioxidant effects and indirectly by protein–protein interactions with key signaling molecules such as thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP). TRX and its endogenous regulators may represent important future targets to develop clinical therapies for diseases associated with oxidative stress.


Antioxidants Cardiovascular diseases Endothelium Smooth muscle Signal transduction