Review

Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 84, Issue 3, pp 185-193

First online:

Effects of G-CSF on left ventricular remodeling and heart failure after acute myocardial infarction

  • Hiroyuki TakanoAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine
  • , Yingjie QinAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine
  • , Hiroshi HasegawaAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine
  • , Kazutaka UedaAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine
  • , Yuriko NiitsumaAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine
  • , Masashi OhtsukaAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine
  • , Issei KomuroAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine Email author 

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Abstract

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine that promotes proliferation and differentiation of neutrophil progenitors. G-CSF also possesses immunomodulatory properties. G-CSF-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization is widely used clinically for transplantation. After it was recently reported that G-CSF mobilizes bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) into the infarcted hearts and accelerates the differentiation into vascular cells and cardiac myocytes, myocardial regeneration utilizing mobilization of BMSCs by G-CSF is attracting the attention of investigators. In animal models, G-CSF prevents left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction, at least in part, through a decrease in apoptotic cells and an increase in vascular cells. Although it is controversial whether BMSCs mobilized by G-CSF can differentiate into cardiac myocytes, G-CSF-induced angiogenesis is indeed recognized in infarcted heart. The cardioprotective effects of G-CSF are recognized even in isolated perfused heart. In addition, G-CSF activates various signaling pathways such as Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 through G-CSF receptors in cardiac myocytes. These observations suggest that G-CSF not only induces mobilization of stem cells and progenitor cells but also acts directly on cardiomyocytes. Therefore, G-CSF may be utilized as a novel agent to have protective and regenerative effects on injured myocardium. Although the effects of G-CSF on the progression of atherosclerosis are still unclear, there is a possibility that G-CSF will become a promising therapy for ischemic heart diseases.

Keywords

Angiogenesis Cytokine G-CSF Heart failure Myocardial infarction Remodeling