Sexually differentiated functions of female-produced pheromone of the black chafer Holotrichia loochooana loochooana (Sawada) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)
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- Arakaki, N., Wakamura, S., Yasui, H. et al. Chemoecology (2003) 13: 183. doi:10.1007/s00049-003-0247-z
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Both male and female Holotrichia loochooana loochooana (Sawada) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were attracted with female-produced pheromone, anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid), in the field. Male chafers were observed to apparently directly locate cotton balls impregnated with 1 to 10 mg of pheromone. In contrast, females never directly oriented to the treated balls but landed 0.2-1.5 m away and exposed their abdominal glands in a calling posture, which occasionally resulted in aggregation of both females and males. This suggested the mating aggregation of this species could be primarily induced by pheromone released by females. A hypothesis for adaptability of female aggregation is proposed and discussed.