Release of juvenile nematodes at hibernation sites by overwintered queens of the hornet Vespa simillima Research Article First Online: 15 June 2013 Received: 06 August 2012 Revised: 22 May 2013 Accepted: 23 May 2013 DOI:
Cite this article as: Sayama, K., Kosaka, H. & Makino, S. Insect. Soc. (2013) 60: 383. doi:10.1007/s00040-013-0303-9 Abstract
Sphaerularia vespae only parasitizes hornet queens and deprives them of fertility. To elucidate its transmission route, we observed the behavior of overwintered queens of Vespa simillima found around decayed logs of fallen trees—the principal hibernation sites for this species. We found that overwintered queens frequently visited those decayed logs in summer (late June to mid-August), hovering or walking on the surfaces of the logs, and sometimes entering holes or cracks there. These queens, unlike those visiting the hibernation sites in the fall, did not excavate wood to make their hibernacula, but often released juvenile nematodes there. In 25 % of the entries observed, we confirmed that juvenile nematodes had been released from the tips of the hornet’s gasters and thus transferred to the decayed logs. The timing of the host’s initial visit to decayed logs for nematode transmission corresponded well with the hatching of juveniles within the host’s body. These results suggest that the parasitic nematode manipulates its host to visit decayed logs in summer for its own transmission. Keywords Entomoparasitic nematodes Hibernaculum Host manipulation Parasitism Social wasps Sphaerularia vespae Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:
) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. 10.1007/s00040-013-0303-9 Supplementary material View video
ESM_1 (release of nematodes): A sequence of behaviors of the parasitized queen of
Vespa simillima releasing juvenile nematodes near the opening of a hole in the decayed log. These behaviors were videotaped in Sapporo on 21 July 2008. (MPG 16894 kb) References
Alford D.V. 1975.
Bumblebees. Davis-Poynter, London
Archer M.E. 1994. Taxonomy, distribution and nesting biology of the
group (Hym., Vespidae).
Entomol. Mon. Mag.
Archer M.E. 2012.
Vespine Wasps of the World: Behaviour, Ecology & Taxonomy of the Vespinae. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester
Bedding R.A. 1984. Nematode parasites of Hymenoptera. In:
Plant and Insect Nematodes (Nickle W.R., Ed), Marcel Dekker, New York. pp 755-795
Brodeur J. and Vet L.E.M. 1994. Usurpation of host behaviour by a parasitic wasp.
Carpenter J.M. and Kojima J. 1997. Checklist of the species in the subfamily Vespinae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Vespidae).
Nat. Hist. Bull. Ibaraki Univ.
Cumber R.A. 1949. Humble-bee parasites and commensals found within a thirty mile radius of London.
Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London Ser. A
Eberhard W.G. 2000. Spider manipulation by a wasp larva.
Evans H.C. 1989. Mycopathogens of insects of epigeal and aerial habitats. In:
Insect- Fungus Interactions (Wilding N., Collins N.M., Hammond P.M. and Webber J.F., Eds). Academic Press, London. pp 205-238
Kanzaki N., Kosaka H., Sayama K., Takahashi J. and Makino S. 2007.
Sphaerularia vespae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Tylenchomorpha, Sphaerularioidea), an endoparasite of a common Japanese hornet, Vespa
simillima Smith (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Zool. Sci.
Levri E.P. 1999. Parasite-induced change in host behavior of a freshwater snail: parasitic manipulation or byproduct of infection?
Lundberg H. and Svensson B.G. 1975. Studies on the behaviour of
Latr. species (Hym., Apidae) parasitized by
Dufour (Nematoda) in an alpine area.
Nor. J. Entomol.
Macfarlane R.P., Lipa J.J. and Liu H.J. 1995. Bumble bee pathogens and internal enemies.
Makino S. and Sayama K. 2005. Species compositions of vespine wasps collected with bait traps in recreation forests in northern and central Japan (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Vespidae).
Bull. Forestry Forest Prod. Res. Inst.
Makino S., Yamane Sk., Ban T. and Kunou I. 1981. The Japanese hornet
Smith, an important nuisance pest in urban areas (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).
Jap. J. Sanit. Zool.
Matsuura M. 1991.
Vespa and Provespa. In: The Social Biology of Wasps (Ross K.G. and Matthews R.W., Eds). Cornell University Press, Ithaca. pp 232-262
Matsuura M. and Yamane Sk. 1990.
Biology of the Vespine Wasps. Springer-Verlag, Berlin
McCorquodale D.B., Beresford R.G., Francis J.M., Thomson C.E. and Bartlett C.M. 1998. Prevalence of
Sphaerularia bombi (Nematoda: Tylenchida: Sphaerulariidae) in bumble bee queens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada. Can. Entomol.
McCurdy D.G., Forbes M.R. and Boates J.S. 1999. Evidence that the parasitic nematode
behavior to increase transmission to the sandpiper,
Moore J. 2002.
Parasites and the Behavior of Animals. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York
Müller C.B. 1994. Parasitoid induced digging behaviour in bumblebee workers.
Poinar G.O. and van der Laan P.A. 1972. Morphology and life history of
Sayama K., Kosaka H. and Makino S. 2007. The first record of infection and sterilization by the nematode
in hornets (Hymenoptera, Vespidae,
Schmid-Hempel P. 1998.
Parasites in Social Insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton
Stein G. 1956. Weitere beiträge zur Biologie von
Leon Dufour 1837.
Thomas F., Schmidt-Rhaesa A., Martin G., Manu C., Durand P. and Renaud F. 2002. Do hairworms (Nematomorpha) manipulate the water seeking behaviour of their terrestrial hosts?
J. Evol. Biol.
Yamane Sk. and Kanda E. 1979. Notes on the hibernation of some vespine wasps in northern Japan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).
Google Scholar Copyright information
© International Union for the Study of Social Insects (IUSSI) 2013