Caste specialization in behavioral defenses against fungus garden parasites in Acromyrmex octospinosus leaf-cutting ants Research Article First Online: 28 September 2010 Received: 27 April 2010 Revised: 28 July 2010 Accepted: 03 August 2010 DOI:
Cite this article as: Abramowski, D., Currie, C.R. & Poulsen, M. Insect. Soc. (2011) 58: 65. doi:10.1007/s00040-010-0117-y Abstract
Division of labor and caste specialization plays an important role in many aspects of social insect colony organization, including parasite defense. Within leaf-cutting ant colonies, worker caste specialization permeates colony tasks ranging from foraging, substrate incorporation, brood care, and chemical defenses via glandular secretions and mutualistic bacteria. Leaf-cutting ants rely on protecting a mutualistic fungus they grow for food from microfungi in the genus
Escovopsis that parasitizes the ant–fungus relationship. Here, we examine whether Acromyrmex octospinosus leaf-cutter ant castes (minors and majors) display task specialization in two behavioral defenses against Escovopsis: fungus grooming (the removal of Escovopsis spores) and weeding (the removal of large pieces of Escovopsis-infected fungus garden). Using behavioral observations, we show that minors are the primary caste that performs fungus grooming, while weeding is almost exclusively performed by majors. In addition, using a sub-colony infection experimental setup, we show that at the early stages of infection, minors more efficiently remove Escovopsis spores from the fungus garden, thereby restricting Escovopsis spore germination and growth. At later stages of infection, after Escovopsis spore germination, we find that major workers are as efficient as minors in defending the fungus garden, likely due to the increased importance of weeding. Finally, we show, using SEM imaging, that the number of sensory structures is similar between minor and major workers. If these structures are invoked in recognition of the parasites, this finding suggests that both castes are able to sense Escovopsis. Our findings support that leaf-cutter ant behavioral defense tasks against Escovopsis are subject to caste specialization, likely facilitated by worker sizes being optimal for grooming and weeding by minors and majors, respectively, with important consequences for cultivar defense. Keywords Escovopsis Fungus-growing ants Grooming Social immunity Task specialization Weeding Worker caste References
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