Circuits, Systems & Signal Processing

, 27:391

Automatic Synthesis of VFs and VMs by Applying Genetic Algorithms


    • Department of ElectronicsINAOE
  • Miguel-Aurelio Duarte-Villaseñor
    • Department of ElectronicsINAOE
  • Ivick Guerra-Gómez
    • Department of ElectronicsINAOE

DOI: 10.1007/s00034-008-9030-2

Cite this article as:
Tlelo-Cuautle, E., Duarte-Villaseñor, M. & Guerra-Gómez, I. Circuits Syst Signal Process (2008) 27: 391. doi:10.1007/s00034-008-9030-2


An automatic synthesis method is introduced to design voltage followers (VFs) and voltage mirrors (VMs) by performing evolutionary operations. It is shown that the nullor element is useful to introduce a new genetic representation to codify the behavior of the VF by a chromosome divided by four genes: small-signal (genSS), synthesis of the nullor by MOSFET (genSMos), bias (genBias), and synthesis of current mirrors (genCM). Further, it is shown that the behavior of the VM can be codified by evolving the chromosome of the VF. The proposed synthesis method uses SPICE to evaluate the fitness of the VF and VM. Finally, we show the synthesis of several VFs and VMs which are designed using standard CMOS technology of 0.35 μm. The applications and evolution of the VF and VM to synthesize more complex devices such as current conveyors (CCs) and inverting CCs are briefly discussed.


Evolutionary electronicsGenetic algorithmsCircuit synthesisVFVMNullor
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© Birkhäuser Boston 2008