Automatic Synthesis of VFs and VMs by Applying Genetic Algorithms
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
An automatic synthesis method is introduced to design voltage followers (VFs) and voltage mirrors (VMs) by performing evolutionary operations. It is shown that the nullor element is useful to introduce a new genetic representation to codify the behavior of the VF by a chromosome divided by four genes: small-signal (genSS), synthesis of the nullor by MOSFET (genSMos), bias (genBias), and synthesis of current mirrors (genCM). Further, it is shown that the behavior of the VM can be codified by evolving the chromosome of the VF. The proposed synthesis method uses SPICE to evaluate the fitness of the VF and VM. Finally, we show the synthesis of several VFs and VMs which are designed using standard CMOS technology of 0.35 μm. The applications and evolution of the VF and VM to synthesize more complex devices such as current conveyors (CCs) and inverting CCs are briefly discussed.
- V. Aggarwal, Novel canonic current mode DDCC based SRCO synthesized using a genetic algorithm. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 40, pp. 83–85, 2004. CrossRef
- A. Arbel, Towards a perfect CMOS CCII. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 12, pp. 119–132, 1997. CrossRef
- A. Awad, A. M. Soliman, Inverting second generation current conveyors: the missing building blocks, CMOS realizations and applications. International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 413–432, 1999. CrossRef
- A. Awad, A. M. Soliman, On the voltage mirrors and the current mirrors. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 2, pp. 79–81, 2002. CrossRef
- D. F. Bowers, A precision current-feedback operational amplifier. IEEE Bipolar Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM), pp. 68–70, 1988.
- D. F. Bowers, Applying current feedback to voltage amplifier. IEE circuits and systems publication, London: Peter Peregrinus, pp. 569–595, 1990, chapter 16.
- H. P. Chen, M. T. Lin, W. S. Yang, Novel first-order non-inverting and inverting output of all-pass filter at the same configuration using ICCII. IEICE Transactions on Electronics, Vol. E89-C, No. 6, pp. 865–867, 2006. CrossRef
- M. Fakhfakh, M. Loulou, N. Masmoudi, Optimizing performances of switched current memory cells through a heuristic. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 115–126, 2007. CrossRef
- M. Fakhfakh, M. Loulou, N. Masmoudi, C. Sánchez-López, E. Tlelo-Cuautle, Symbolic noise figure analysis of CCII. Fourth International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Vol. IV, Hammamet, Tunisia, March 19–22, 2007.
- J. B. Grimbleby, Automatic analogue circuit synthesis using genetic algorithms. IEE Proc. Circuits, Devices and Systems, Vol. 147, No. 6, pp. 319–323, 2000. CrossRef
- S. S. Gupta, R. Senani, New single-resistance-controlled oscillator configurations using unity-gain cells. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 6, pp. 111–119, 2006. CrossRef
- K. Hayatleh, A. A. Tammam, B. L. Hart, Novel input stages for current feedback operational amplifiers. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 50, pp. 163–183, 2007. CrossRef
- M. A. Ibrahim, H. Kuntman, S. Ozcan, O. Suvak, O. Cicekoglu, New first-order inverting-type second-generation current conveyor-based all-pass sections including canonical forms. Journal: Electrical Engineering, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 299–301, 2004.
- J. R. Koza, L. W. Jones, M. A. Keane, M. J. Streeter, S. H. Al-Sakran, Toward automated design of industrial-strength analog circuits by means of genetic programming, Genetic Programming Theory and Practice II, pp. 121–142, 2004.
- P. Kumar, R. Senani, Bibliography on nullors and their applications in circuit analysis, synthesis and design. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 33, pp. 65–76, 2002. CrossRef
- C. Mattiussi, D. Floreano, Analog genetic encoding for the evolution of circuits and networks. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 2006. doi:10.1109/TEVC.2006.886801.
- T. McConaghy, P. Palmers, G. Gielen, M. Steyaert, Simultaneous multi-topology multi-objective sizing across thousands of analog circuit topologies. IEEE DAC, pp. 944–947, 2007.
- S. Minaei, E. Yuce, O. Cicekoglu, ICCII-Based voltage-mode filter with single input and six outputs employing grounded capacitors. Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 559–566, 2006. CrossRef
- S. B. Salem, M. Fakhfakh, D. S. Masmoudi, M. Loulou, P. Loumeau, N. Masmoudi, A high performances CMOS CCII and high frequency applications. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 71–78, 2006. CrossRef
- Z. R. Salem, M. A. Pacheco, M. Vellasco, Evolutionary Electronics: Automatic design of electronic circuits and systems by genetic algorithms, New York: CRC Press, 2002
- H. Schmid, Approximating the universal active element. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems II, Vol. 47, No. 11, pp. 1160–1169, 2000. CrossRef
- A. S. Sedra, K. C. Smith, A second generation current conveyor and its application. IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory, Vol. 17, pp. 132–134, 1970.
- A. S. Sedra, K. C. Smith, The current conveyor: A new circuit building block. Proc. IEEE, Vol. 56, pp. 1368–1369, 1968. CrossRef
- A. Somani, P. P. Chakrabarti, A. Patra, An evolutionary algorithm-based approach to automated design of analog and RF circuits using adaptive normalized cost functions. IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 336–353, 2007. CrossRef
- J. A. Svoboda, Current conveyors, operational amplifiers and nullors. IEE Proceedings, Part. G, Vol. 136, pp. 317–322, 1989.
- E. Tlelo-Cuautle, M. A. Duarte-Villaseñor, J. M. García-Ortega, C. Sánchez-López, Designing SRCOs by combining SPICE and Verilog-A. International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 94, No. 4, pp. 373–379, 2007. CrossRef
- E. Tlelo-Cuautle, D. Torres-Muñoz, L. Torres-Papaqui, On the computational synthesis of CMOS voltage followers. IEICE Trans. on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, Vol. E88-A, No. 12, pp. 3479–3484, 2005. CrossRef
- A. Toker, H. Kuntman, O. Cicekoglu, M. Discigil, New oscillator topologies using inverting second-generation current conveyors. Turk J Elec Engin, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 119–129, 2002.
- A. Toker, A. Zeki, Tunable active network synthesis using ICCIIs. International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 94, No. 4, pp. 335–351, 2007. CrossRef
- D. Torres-Muñoz, E. Tlelo-Cuautle, Automatic biasing and sizing of CMOS analog integrated circuits. IEEE MWSCAS, pp. 915–918, 2005.
- L. Torres-Papaqui, D. Torres-Muñoz, E. Tlelo-Cuautle, Synthesis of VFs and CFs by manipulation of generic cells. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 99–102, 2006. CrossRef
- N. Unno, N. Fujii, Automated design of analog circuits accelerated by use of simplified MOS model and reuse of genetic operations. IEICE Trans. Electron., Vol. E90-C, No. 6, pp. 1291–1298, 2007. CrossRef
- H. Y. Wang, S. H. Chang, Y. L. Jeang, C. Y. Huang, Rearrangement of mirror elements. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 49, pp. 87–90, 2006. CrossRef
- H. Y. Wang, C. T. Lee, C. Y. Huang, Characteristic investigation of new pathological elements. Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Vol. 44, pp. 95–102, 2005. CrossRef
- Automatic Synthesis of VFs and VMs by Applying Genetic Algorithms
Circuits, Systems & Signal Processing
Volume 27, Issue 3 , pp 391-403
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- SP Birkhäuser Verlag Boston
- Additional Links
- Evolutionary electronics
- Genetic algorithms
- Circuit synthesis
- Industry Sectors