Circuits, Systems & Signal Processing

, 27:391

First online:

Automatic Synthesis of VFs and VMs by Applying Genetic Algorithms

  • Esteban Tlelo-CuautleAffiliated withDepartment of Electronics, INAOE Email author 
  • , Miguel-Aurelio Duarte-VillaseñorAffiliated withDepartment of Electronics, INAOE
  • , Ivick Guerra-GómezAffiliated withDepartment of Electronics, INAOE

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An automatic synthesis method is introduced to design voltage followers (VFs) and voltage mirrors (VMs) by performing evolutionary operations. It is shown that the nullor element is useful to introduce a new genetic representation to codify the behavior of the VF by a chromosome divided by four genes: small-signal (genSS), synthesis of the nullor by MOSFET (genSMos), bias (genBias), and synthesis of current mirrors (genCM). Further, it is shown that the behavior of the VM can be codified by evolving the chromosome of the VF. The proposed synthesis method uses SPICE to evaluate the fitness of the VF and VM. Finally, we show the synthesis of several VFs and VMs which are designed using standard CMOS technology of 0.35 μm. The applications and evolution of the VF and VM to synthesize more complex devices such as current conveyors (CCs) and inverting CCs are briefly discussed.


Evolutionary electronics Genetic algorithms Circuit synthesis VF VM Nullor