What have snakes taught us about integrins?
- Cite this article as:
- Huang, TF. CMLS, Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1998) 54: 527. doi:10.1007/s000180050181
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Snake venoms contain unique components that affect cell-matrix interactions. Disintegrins represent a class of low molecular weight, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing, cysteine-rich peptides purified from the venom of various snakes among the Viperidae and Crotalidae. They bind with various degrees of specificity to integrins αIIb β3 , α5 β1 and αV β3 expressed on cells. Snake venom metalloproteases (high molecular mass haemorrhagins) also contain disintegrin-like domains, in addition to zinc-chelating sequences. Membrane-anchored ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease domain), multidomain molecules consisting of metalloprotease, disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich, and epidermal growth factor domains, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic tail, are a new family of proteins. In the light of the large number and wide distribution of ADAMs, they may participate in cell-cell fusion events, including sperm-egg binding and fusion, myoblast fusion and other cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The structure-function relationship of these molecules is discussed.