Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 11, pp 1977–1999

Development and pathologies of the arterial wall

  • Sara B. Seidelmann
  • Janet K. Lighthouse
  • Daniel M. Greif
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00018-013-1478-y

Cite this article as:
Seidelmann, S.B., Lighthouse, J.K. & Greif, D.M. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2014) 71: 1977. doi:10.1007/s00018-013-1478-y

Abstract

Arteries consist of an inner single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by layers of smooth muscle and an outer adventitia. The majority of vascular developmental studies focus on the construction of endothelial networks through the process of angiogenesis. Although many devastating vascular diseases involve abnormalities in components of the smooth muscle and adventitia (i.e., the vascular wall), the morphogenesis of these layers has received relatively less attention. Here, we briefly review key elements underlying endothelial layer formation and then focus on vascular wall development, specifically on smooth muscle cell origins and differentiation, patterning of the vascular wall, and the role of extracellular matrix and adventitial progenitor cells. Finally, we discuss select human diseases characterized by marked vascular wall abnormalities. We propose that continuing to apply approaches from developmental biology to the study of vascular disease will stimulate important advancements in elucidating disease mechanism and devising novel therapeutic strategies.

Keywords

Vascular development Vascular wall Smooth muscle Adventitia Artery Endothelium Developmental biology Vascular disease 

Abbreviations

AAA

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

ADCL

Autosomal dominant cutis laxa

ALK1

Activin receptor-like kinase 1

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

CADASIL

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

DIT

Diffuse intimal thickening

E

Embryonic day

EC

Endothelial cell

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EMT

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

hESC

Human embryonic stem cell

IL

Interleukin

IPAH

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

iPSC

Induced pluripotent stem cell

ISV

Intersegmental vessel

JAG1

Jagged 1

LDS

Loeys–Dietz syndrome

LPM

Lateral plate mesoderm

LTBP

Latent TGFβ binding protein

MFS

Marfan syndrome

MI

Myocardial infarction

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteases

P

Postnatal day

PA

Pulmonary artery

PAH

Pulmonary arterial hypertension

PAP

Pulmonary arterial pressure

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PH

Pulmonary hypertension

PSM

Presomitic mesoderm

RV

Right ventricle

S1PR1

Sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor 1

SRF

Serum response factor

SMA

Alpha smooth muscle actin

SMC

Smooth muscle cell

SMMHC

Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain

STAT

Signal transducer and activator of transcription

SVAS

Supravalvular aortic stenosis

TAA

Thoracic aortic aneurysm

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TIMPs

Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VSMC

Vascular smooth muscle cell

WS

Williams syndrome

Wt1

Wilms tumor 1

YAC

Yeast artificial chromosome

β-gal

β-Galactosidase

Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara B. Seidelmann
    • 1
  • Janet K. Lighthouse
    • 1
  • Daniel M. Greif
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale Cardiovascular Research CenterYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations