, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp 433-451

Emerging topics and new perspectives on HLA-G

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Following the Fifth International Conference on non-classical HLA-G antigens (HLA-G), held in Paris in July 2009, we selected some topics which focus on emerging aspects in the setting of HLA-G functions. In particular, HLA-G molecules could play a role in: (1) various inflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, intracerebral hemorrhage, gastrointestinal, skin and rheumatic diseases, and asthma, where they may act as immunoregulatory factors; (2) the mechanisms to escape immune surveillance utilized by several viruses, such as human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, rabies virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza virus type A and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1); and (3) cytokine/chemokine network and stem cell transplantation, since they seem to modulate cell migration by the downregulation of chemokine receptor expression and mesenchymal stem cell activity blocking of effector cell functions and the generation of regulatory T cells. However, the immunomodulatory circuits mediated by HLA-G proteins still remain to be clarified.