Multifunctionality of extracellular and cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans
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- Kirn-Safran, C., Farach-Carson, M.C. & Carson, D.D. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2009) 66: 3421. doi:10.1007/s00018-009-0096-1
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Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are a remarkably diverse family of glycosaminoglycan-bearing protein cores that include the syndecans, the glypicans, perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII. Members of this protein class play key roles during normal processes that occur during development, tissue morphogenesis, and wound healing. As key components of basement membranes in organs and tissues, they also participate in selective filtration of biological fluids, in establishing cellular barriers, and in modulation of angiogenesis. The ability to perform these functions is provided both by the features of the protein cores as well as by the unique properties of heparan sulfate, which is assembled as a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid and modified by specific enzymes to generate specialized biologically active structures. This article discusses the structures and functions of this amazing family of proteoglycans and provides a platform for further study of the individual members.