, Volume 66, Issue 18, pp 2985-3008
Date: 12 Jun 2009

Depression and antidepressants: molecular and cellular aspects

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Clinical depression is viewed as a physical and psychic disease process having a neuropathological basis, although a clear understanding of its ethiopathology is still missing. The observation that depressive symptoms are influenced by pharmacological manipulation of monoamines led to the hypothesis that depression results from reduced availability or functional deficiency of monoaminergic transmitters in some cerebral regions. However, there are limitations to current monoamine theories related to mood disorders. Recently, a growing body of experimental data has showed that other classes of endogenous compounds, such as neuropeptides and amino acids, may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. With the development of neuroscience, neuronal networks and intracellular pathways have been identified and characterized, describing the existence of the interaction between monoamines and receptors in turn able to modulate the expression of intracellular proteins and neurotrophic factors, suggesting that depression/antidepressants may be intermingled with neurogenesis/neurodegenerative processes.