Review

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 65, Issue 11, pp 1631-1652

Curcumin: From ancient medicine to current clinical trials

  • H. HatcherAffiliated withDepartment of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine
  • , R. PlanalpAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire
  • , J. ChoAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, University of New Hampshire
  • , F. M. TortiAffiliated withDepartment of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University School of MedicineComprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine
  • , S. V. TortiAffiliated withDepartment of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of MedicineComprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine

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Abstract.

Curcumin is the active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). Curcumin has a surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. The pleiotropic activities of curcumin derive from its complex chemistry as well as its ability to influence multiple signaling pathways, including survival pathways such as those regulated by NF-κB, Akt, and growth factors; cytoprotective pathways dependent on Nrf2; and metastatic and angiogenic pathways. Curcumin is a free radical scavenger and hydrogen donor, and exhibits both pro- and antioxidant activity. It also binds metals, particularly iron and copper, and can function as an iron chelator. Curcumin is remarkably non-toxic and exhibits limited bioavailability. Curcumin exhibits great promise as a therapeutic agent, and is currently in human clinical trials for a variety of conditions, including multiple myeloma, pancreatic cancer, myelodysplastic syndromes, colon cancer, psoriasis and Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords.

Curcumin inflammation antioxidant angiogenesis anti-tumor anticancer