Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses
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- Schröder, M. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2008) 65: 862. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-7383-5
In homeostasis, cellular processes are in a dynamic equilibrium. Perturbation of homeostasis causes stress. In this review I summarize how perturbation of three major functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells–protein folding, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and storing intracellular Ca2+ – causes ER stress and activates signaling pathways collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). I discuss how the UPR reestablishes homeostasis, and summarize our current understanding of how the transition from protective to apoptotic UPR signaling is controlled, and how the UPR induces inflammatory signaling.