, Volume 64, Issue 19-20, pp 2642-2656
Date: 19 Jul 2007

Structure and function of type I copper in multicopper oxidases

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Abstract.

The type I copper center in multicopper oxidases is constructed from 1Cys2His and weakly coordinating 1Met or the non-coordinating 1Phe/1Leu, and it exhibits spectral properties and an alkaline transition similar to those of the blue copper center in blue copper proteins. Since the type I copper center in multicopper oxidases is deeply buried inside the protein molecule, electron transfers to and from type I copper are performed through specific pathways: the hydrogen bond between an amino acid located at the substrate binding site and a His residue coordinating type I copper, and the His-Cys-His sequence connecting the type I copper center and the trinuclear copper center comprised of a type II copper and a pair of type III coppers. The intramolecular electron transfer rates can be tuned by mutating the fourth ligand of type I copper. Further, mutation at the Cys ligand gives a vacant type I copper center and traps the reaction intermediate during the four-electron reduction of dioxygen.

Received 14 April 2007; received after revision 5 June 2007; accepted 26 June 2007