, Volume 62, Issue 24, pp 3106-3116
Date: 05 Dec 2005

Mechanism of polyamine tolerance in yeast: novel regulators and insights

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Polyamines are small charged molecules essential for various cellular functions, but at high levels they are cytotoxic. Two yeast kinases, SKY1 and PTK2, have been demonstrated to regulate polyamine tolerance. Here we report the identification and characterization of additional genes involved in regulating polyamine tolerance: YGL007W, FES1 and AGP2. Deletion of YGL007W, an open reading frame located within the promoter of the membrane proton pump PMA1, decreased Pma1p expression. Deletion of FES1 or AGP2 resulted in reduced polyamine uptake. While high-affinity spermine uptake was practically absent in agp2Δ cells, fes1Δ cells displayed only reduced affinity towards spermine. Despite the reduced uptake, the resistant strains accumulated significant levels of polyamines and displayed increased ornithine decarboxylase activity, suggesting reduced polyamine sensing. Interestingly, fes1Δ cells were highly sensitive to salt ions, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. These results indicate that mechanisms leading to polyamine tolerance are complex, and involve components other than uptake.

Received 31 July 2005; received after revision 7 October 2005; accepted 19 October 2005