Review

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS

, Volume 62, Issue 19, pp 2305-2316

First online:

Phospholipase D: a lipid centric review

  • G. M. JenkinsAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacology and the Center for Developmental Genetics, University Medical Center at Stony Brook Email author 
  • , M. A. FrohmanAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacology and the Center for Developmental Genetics, University Medical Center at Stony Brook

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Abstract.

Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond of the glycerolipid phosphatidylcholine, resulting in the production of phosphatidic acid and free choline. Phosphatidic acid is widely considered to be the intracellular lipid mediator of many of the biological functions attributed to PLD. However, phosphatidic acid is a tightly regulated lipid in cells and can be converted to other potentially bioactive lipids, including diacylglycerol and lysophosphatidic acid. PLD activities have been described in multiple organisms, including plants, mammals, bacteria and yeast. In mammalian systems, PLD activity regulates the actin cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking for secretion and endocytosis, and receptor signaling. PLD is in turn regulated by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, protein kinase C and ADP Ribosylation Factor and Rho family GTPases. This review focuses on the lipid precursors and products of mammalian PLD metabolism, especially phosphatidic acid and the roles this lipid performs in the mediation of the functions of PLD.

Key words.

Phospholipase D phosphatidic acid diacylglercol phosphatidylcholine signal transduction