, Volume 61, Issue 7-8, pp 737-749

All in the family: aldose reductase and closely related aldo-keto reductases

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Aldose reductase catalyzes the first step in the polyol pathway and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In addition to polyol synthesis, aldose reductase may have multiple other activities that intersect with signal processing and oxidative defense mechanisms. Multiple aldose reductase-like proteins have been discovered to have structures and catalytic properties that broadly overlap those of aldose reductase. This chapter will summarize new insights into properties and functions of aldose reductase and closely related members of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily.