Factor XIII subunit A as an intracellular transglutaminase
- Cite this article as:
- Ádány, R. & Bárdos, H. CMLS, Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2003) 60: 1049. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-2178-9
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Over the last 2 decades there has been increasing evidence that the role of factor XIII (FXIII) is not restricted to the area of hemostasis and that its subunit A functions as an intracellular enzyme in platelets and monocytes/macrophages. FXIII is already expressed during compartmentalisation of the precursors of megakaryocyte/platelet and monocyte/macrophage cell lines in the bone marrow. FXIII-A, produced by megakaryocytes, is packaged into budding platelets and is present in huge quantity in circulating ones. It seems very likely that it plays an important role in the cytoskeletal remodelling associated with the activation stages of platelets. FXIII-A can also be detected in blood monocytes and in all subsets of monocyte-derived macrophages throughout the body. FXIII-A is mainly localised in the cytoplasm, in association with cytoskeletal filaments, but at a relatively early stage of macrophage differentiation it also appears transiently in the nucleus. Cytoplasmic expression has a very close relationship with phagocytic activities. Further research is needed to understand the biological significance of its nuclear presentation.