, Volume 61, Issue 9, pp 977-985
Date: 23 May 2012

NF-κΒ inhibition is ineffective in blocking cytokine-induced IL-8 production but P38 and STAT1 inhibitors are effective

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Abstract

Objective

In vitro but not in vivo evidence indicates that blockade of NF-κB is effective in reducing inflammation and production of IL-8. We hypothesized that the failure of in vitro experiments to predict in vivo outcome was due to the use of short time periods of observation and the use of single cytokines to stimulate NF-κB.

Methods

HEK cells with a NF-κB reporter gene or CaCo-2 cells were stimulated with CM (IL-1-β; TNF-α, and IFN-γ) or individual cytokines in the presence and absence of NF-κB inhibitors, a STAT1 inhibitor, and/or a p38 MAPK inhibitor for periods up to 24 h. NF-κB activation, IL-8 production, and nitric oxide production were measured.

Results

CM-induced IL-8 production in HEK cells was additive to synergistic. CM enhanced production of IL-8 at 24 h but not 4 h was independent of NF-κB. The p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the STAT1 inhibitor EGCG blocked CM-induced IL-8 production at both early and late time periods. The NF-κB inhibitors PDTC and BAY11-7082 were found to increase CM-stimulated IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells at 24 h.

Conclusions

Our data suggest an effective strategy to reduce IL-8 production is to block p38 or STAT1 rather than NF-κB.

Responsible Editor: Liwu Li.