Review

Inflammation Research

, Volume 60, Issue 5, pp 409-424

First online:

Impact of smoking on inflammation: overview of molecular mechanisms

  • R. B. GonçalvesAffiliated withDepartment of Periodontology and Research Group in Oral Ecology, Faculty of Dentistry, Laval University
  • , R. D. ColettaAffiliated withDepartment of Oral Diagnostics, School of Dentistry at Piracicaba, University of Campinas
  • , K. G. SilvérioAffiliated withDepartment of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Division of Periodontics, School of Dentistry at Piracicaba, University of Campinas
  • , L. BenevidesAffiliated withDepartment of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo
  • , M. Z. CasatiAffiliated withDepartment of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Division of Periodontics, School of Dentistry at Piracicaba, University of Campinas
  • , J. S. da SilvaAffiliated withDepartment of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo
  • , F. H. NocitiJr.Affiliated withDepartment of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Division of Periodontics, School of Dentistry at Piracicaba, University of Campinas Email author 

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Abstract

Background

Inflammation is a critical component of normal tissue repair, as well as being fundamental to the body’s defense against infection. Environmental factors, such as smoking, have been reported to modify the host response and hence modify inflammation progression, severity and outcome. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which smoking affects inflammation is vital for preventive and therapeutic strategies on a clinical level.

Aim

The purpose of the present article is to review the potential biological mechanisms by which smoking affects inflammation, emphasizing recent developments.

Results

Smoking is reported to effect a number of biological mediators of inflammation through its effect on immune-inflammatory cells, leading to an immunosuppressant state. Recent evidence strongly suggests that the molecular mechanisms behind the modulation of inflammation by smoking mainly involve the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) family, through the activation of both an inhibitor of IkB kinase (IKK)-dependent and -independent pathway. In addition to NF-kB activation, a number of transcriptional factors including GATA, PAX5 and Smad 3/4, have also been implicated.

Conclusion

Multiple mechanisms may be responsible for the association of smoking and inflammation, and the identification of potential therapeutic targets should guide future research.

Keywords

Cigarette smoking Inflammation Immune system Periodontal disease Nicotine Cholinergic