Effect of endogenous and synthetic antioxidants on hydrogen peroxide-induced guinea-pig colon contraction
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- Wan, B.Y.C., Mann, S., Assem, E.S.K. et al. Inflamm. Res. (2010) 59: 231. doi:10.1007/s00011-009-0136-1
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Objectives and design
The effects of the endogenous antioxidant α-lipoic acid on guinea pig colon smooth muscle contraction (Gpcc) induced by hydrogen peroxide were examined. Having previously shown that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) benzamide inhibitor MGCD0103 inhibits guinea-pig smooth muscle contraction, as do various sulfur-containing antioxidants, we asked whether hybrid compounds possessing both α-lipoic acid-derived antioxidant properties and HDAC inhibitory activity could inhibit Gpcc.
Materials and methods
Guinea pig colon (Gpc) was incubated at 37°C with Krebs buffer; the four stimulants—hydrogen peroxide, carbachol, histamine, and sodium fluoride—were added independently. The response to each stimulant alone was compared with that in the presence of each of the test compounds: MGCD0103, α-lipoic acid, and two of their hybrids, UCL M084 and UCL M109.
NaF (10 mM), carbachol (0.05 μM), histamine (0.1 μM), and hydrogen peroxide (1 μM) produced Gpcc of about 50–60% above basal level. With the exception of MGCD0103 against hydrogen peroxide, all four test compounds at 1 μM—MGCD0103, α-lipoic acid, UCL M084, and UCL M109—produced a significant inhibition of 35–60% of Gpcc induced by hydrogen peroxide, NaF, and carbachol, although none reduced histamine or ovalbumin-induced Gpcc. Benzalkonium chloride (Bcl), a G-protein inhibitor, reduced the hydrogen peroxide-induced Gpcc by 35%.
Contraction by stimulants used to induce Gpcc is known to involve G-proteins. All four test compounds—MGCD0103, α-lipoic acid and two of their hybrids, UCL M084 and UCL M109—reduced Gpcc induced by NaF and carbachol, suggesting that G-protein pathway involvement is relevant to the action of the test compounds, as is also indicated by the Bcl-induced inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced contractions. Additionally, α-lipoic acid and the two hybrids showed >30% inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced contractions, consistent with the antioxidant properties of the 1,2-dithiolane ring.
KeywordsAntioxidantsHydrogen peroxideα-lipoic acidHistone deacetylase inhibitorsGuinea-pig colon contraction
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of many cellular reactions in physiological and pathological conditions. The smooth muscle of the intestine, airways and blood vessels, as well as the epithelium, endothelium or nerve supply of either tissue, might be important targets of ROS action  and may serve as models to study ROS action and drug interventions in ROS-associated disorders. Examples of these disorders include asthma, detrusor muscle instability , and abnormal motility associated with intestinal inflammation and ischaemic injury to endothelial cells . Antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) and other thiols have been shown to relax tracheal smooth muscle and block contractile response to histamine .
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a most important ROS, can alter smooth muscle contraction  and modulate activity of inflammatory cells. It contracts ileum  and colonic smooth muscle, as reported here. It also inhibits histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells, a type of mucosal mast cell [6, 7]. We have previously shown that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor MGCD0103 inhibits guinea-pig airway and colonic smooth muscle contraction induced by antigens and certain agonists , as do antioxidants such as GSH and other thiols .
In the present study, we examined the effects of the potent endogenous antioxidant α-lipoic acid on guinea-pig colon smooth muscle contraction (Gpcc) induced by H2O2, and asked whether hybrid molecules (UCL M084, UCL M108 and UCL M109) containing features of both α-lipoic acid and MGCD0103 could be superior to either compound on Gpcc and therefore give improved efficacy with reduced side effects. We also studied the effect of these compounds on contraction induced by sodium fluoride (NaF, a non-specific G-protein activator), carbachol (a muscarinic receptor agonist) and histamine (H1-receptor mediated).
Materials and methods
Experiments on guinea-pig colon (Gpc) were performed as described previously  using Duncan-Hartley (Harlan UK) or Tricolour (local supply, UCL) guinea-pigs of either sex and weighing ca. 400 g. Gpc was incubated at 37°C in Krebs buffer gassed with 5% CO2/95% O2. Four stimulants were used: H2O2, carbachol, histamine and NaF. Some of the guinea-pigs were also sensitized to egg albumin as previously reported , and the effect of the test compounds on antigen-induced Gpcc was studied. The response to each stimulant alone was compared to that in the presence of each test compound (15 min incubation). Inhibition is expressed as a percentage of response to stimulant alone.
α-lipoic acid, carbachol, histamine, H2O2 and NaF were purchased from Sigma. The two benzamide derivatives, N-(2-aminophenyl)-5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)-pentanamide, UCL M084, and N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-ylpentanoylamino)-methyl] benzamide, UCL M109—hybrid molecules of α-lipoic acid and the histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103—were prepared from α-lipoic acid and appropriate amines using standard coupling procedures. Stock solutions of α-lipoic acid, MGCD0103, UCL M084 and UCL M109 were prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide. This work conformed to the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (1986) and local ethics committee regulations.
Results and discussion
Contraction by stimulants used to induce Gpcc is known to involve G-proteins. These results show that MGCD0103, α-lipoic acid, UCL M084 and UCL M109 reduced the Gpcc induced by NaF and carbachol, suggesting that these compounds work via G-protein pathway, and the Bcl-induced inhibition of H2O2-induced contraction adds further support to involvement of G-proteins in the mode of action of antioxidants. Additionally, α-lipoic acid and the two hybrids showed >30% inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced contractions, consistent with the antioxidant properties of the 1,2-dithiolane ring.