Inflammation Research

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 1-14

First online:

Gatekeepers of intestinal inflammation

  • Heather A. ArnettAffiliated withInflammation Research, Amgen
  • , Joanne L. VineyAffiliated with Inflammation Research, Amgen Email author 

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The intestine is subjected to a barrage of insults from food, bacterial flora, and pathogens. Despite this constant antigenic challenge, the mucosal tissues lining the intestinal tract remain largely under control. The mechanisms regulating the homeostatic balance in the gut have been investigated for many years by many groups, but the precise nature of the regulatory control remains elusive. In this review, we provide an overview of pathways proposed to be involved in dampening the inflammatory response and maintaining the homeostatic balance in the intestine, and how these pathways may be disrupted in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.


Costimulatory receptors Defensins IBD Immunomodulators Cytokines