Date: 24 Feb 2013

Toll-Like Receptors in Human Papillomavirus Infection

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) often causes cutaneous benign lesions, cervical cancer, and a number of other tumors. The mechanisms of host immune system to prevent and control HPV infection still remain poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are specific pattern recognition molecules that bind to microbial components to trigger innate immunity and direct adaptive immunity in the face of immunological danger. TLRs have been established to play an essential role in sensing and initiating antiviral immune responses. Recent accumulating evidence demonstrated that HPVs modulate TLR expression and interfere with TLR signaling pathways, leading to persistent viral infection and carcinogenesis. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles of TLR during HPV infection, focusing on TLR recognition, modulation of TLR expression and signaling, regulatory receptors involved in TLR signaling, and cross-talk of TLRs with antimicrobial peptides. Immunotherapeutic strategies based on TLR agonists have emerged to be one of the novel promising avenues in treatment of HPV-associated diseases in the future.