, Volume 59, Issue 6, pp 441-448
Date: 05 Oct 2011

Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress on Phagocytes’ Function: from Effective Defense to Immunity Evasion Mechanisms

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Abstract

Although oxygen, nitrogen, and chlorine reactive species have been associated with disease pathogenesis, their partial absence is very harmful to the body’s innate immune defense. Lacking of adequate release of free radicals from activated phagocytes is related to impaired ability on fungi, bacteria, and protozoa killing. We constructed an updated conceptual landmark regarding the paramount role of free radicals in phagocyte defense systems (phagocyte oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide/peroxynitrite system) on natural immunity. Diverse fungal, bacterial and protozoal pathogens evade the phagocytes’ oxidative/nitrosative burst though antioxidant genes, enzymes and proteins. The most important evasion mechanisms were also described and discussed. These interconnected systems were reviewed and discussed on the basis of knowledge from relevant research groups around the globe. Phagocyte-derived free radicals are essential to destroy important human pathogens during the course of innate immunity.